“What every woman should know  about  Stress Urinary Incontinence”


  • Leakage of urine is called as urinary incontinence.


  • If urine leaks while coughing, sneezing, laughing or lifting heavy weight, it is stress urinary incontinence.


  • The foremost thing is that you should not be embarrassed about it and feel isolated. You are not the only one living with it. One out of four women has some form of urinary incontinence.


  • Do not decrease the quantity of liquids that you consume daily. This will not decrease the urinary leak. In fact, by doing this, you increase your chances of acquiring urinary tract infection.


  • You should not take it as just part of ageing process and keep living a poor quality of life.


  • The problem is treatable.


  • If the problem is mild i.e. if you leak just a few drops of urine, you might get benefitted by doing Kegel’s exercises.


  • Kegel’s exercises can be started by first identifying the pelvic floor muscles. You can stop urination in midstream and feel for the muscles which contract at that time.


  • You need to strengthen these muscles. Initially, start holding the contractions for a few seconds and then relax. Do it a few times.


  • Perfect your technique and try to hold the contractions for ten seconds. Practice doing ten sets three times a day.


  • Do not contract your abdominal or thigh muscles while doing the Kegel’s exercises.


  • Also, do not make it a habit to stop urination midstream as it can lead to incomplete urinary bladder emptying and hence urinary tract infections


  • If the problem is severe, you will require surgery. In the era of tension free vaginal tapes, the results are very promising.


       “   STAY   AWARE   &   ENJOY   A   QUALITY   LIFE  ”

        For queries visit http://www.drarchanabharti.com


You can save an emergency by an emergency


          Hey this emergency is not something related to emergency rooms              or operation- theatre. It is related to contraception.

  • Emergency contraception is the method of preventing pregnancy after the act of intercourse.
  • Various methods available for the same are….morning after pill, Cu-T.
  • Cu-T can be inserted within 5 days of act and pills can be taken within 72 hours i.e.3 days, but for Cu-T insertion you need to visit doctor or health worker, so emergency oral contraceptive pill is fine.
  • Most effective if taken within 12 hours of act(Golden period),and its effective if taken within 72 hours ,but if 72 hours have passed, even then you can have it till 5 days, though efficacy will be reduced.
  • If you are having regular periods, pills or Cu-T are effective if you had sex in first half of your cycle as they inhibit ovulation.
  • Failure can be there if you take them in your second half. So girls be careful.
  • Who needs emergency contraception: Any woman of reproductive age group may need emergency contraception at some point of her life.
  • As no drug is free from side-effects and contraindications, so is the emergency contraception. It may lead to menstrual irregularities and ectopic pregnancy too. People with migraine or liver disorders take them carefully.
  •      So guys enjoy your life, but be careful. Let emergency be emergency, don’t use it regularly for contraception purpose……..

Healthy mother leads to healthy baby

             Healthy Mother Leads To Healthy Baby

Motherhood comes with responsibilities. Pregnancy is quite demanding. You need to prepare yourself mentally and physically for all the changes taking place in mind, body and environment. It is very challenging for all the would be mothers especially the working women. So would be mothers, here are some suggestions for you:

  • Have regular antenatal check-ups as suggested by your treating obstetrician.
  • Eat well…..It’s not the time to experiment or diet. You stick to your normal diet, not the diet for two norm.
  • Watch your tea or coffee intake as excessive intake may lead to abortion, low birth weight, stomach upset.
  • Avoid raw meat, raw eggs, edibles with raw eggs like mayonnaise, ajinomoto, soft cheese, fish and unpasteurized milk as they may be contaminated with microorganisms and in case of fish with pollutants.
  • Have sufficient amount of omega-3 fatty acids found in flaxseeds(til), soyabeans, walnuts (akhrot) and olive oil.
  • Drink 3 -4 glasses of milk per day. It will provide you the required calcium.
  • Take your daily supplements….Folic acid in first three months , iron and calcium in next six months.
  • Don’t self medicate at any cost especially first three months as this is the period for your child’s organ development. Self medication may harm your child’s development.
  • Exercise right and under guidance. If guidance is not possible,then please- please don’t do strenuous exercises or jogging. Just do your daily walk, breathing exercises.
  • And most important, sleep well. Don’t adopt bed rest until advised by your treating obstetrician.Try to sleep on your side rather than straight on your back.
  • Avoid travelling in first and last 3 months, if not possible to avoid then train is better than bus.

                      Wishing you a happy pregnancy and motherhood.



                               “DONT CONDEMN SEX, CONDOM IT”

On every December 1, we celebrate World AIDS Day. On this occasion, talking about the importance of sex education is a must.

Puberty is usually a confusing time for the child and it is a big challenge for the parents to cater the emotional and physical needs of the child. Lots of new changes take place during this period and there is no platform available where the child gets correct and complete information.

Most of the information that the teenagers get is from their peers or media. Usually this information is incomplete and dubious. The present Indian scenario is also such that parents hesitate to talk about sexual matters with the children. It is important that rather than avoiding discussing these matters, we talk about them and address their concerns.

Safe sex awareness can be started at home and it can play an important role in decreasing the incidence of teenage and unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases like AIDS and……… As a parent we need to understand that there is nothing embarrassing in talking about sex. In fact, we must realise the hazards of lack of sex education.

However, knowledge only will not bring any major change if we don’t adopt it in practice. For example, so many of us know that unprotected sex can lead to AIDS but how many are really using barrier contraceptives. The message that we want to put across is


Then only,the purpose of celebrating world AIDS day will be actualized. Let us together build a healthy India.

Is PMS your problem too?


Most of the women experience little discomfort in their lower abdomen before the menses. But if

  • You get irritable, tense or unhappy before your menses or
  • Your breast becomes very tender
  • You have a feeling of bloating and flatulence and if
  • These symptoms interfere with your daily routine.

Then you might be suffering from Premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

A woman’s menstrual cycle is under the control of certain hormones. The second half of the cycle which is called as luteal phase is linked to PMS. Changing levels of hormone affect some women more than the others. Apart from this, certain other factors like high salt diet, low levels of antioxidants, caffeine or alcohol can worsen your symptoms.

A few problems like endometriosis, perimenopause and adverse effects produced by oral contraceptive pills need to be excluded. Your gynaecologist would like to take elaborate history to rule out these. She would also like to see that you are not suffering from anemia, hypothyroidism, eating disorders and mood disorders.

The good news is this that this problem is treatable and you need not suffer anymore.

Keeping an exercise program in your schedule is advisable. Engage yourself in some form of de-stressing activities. You need to cut down a little bit on your salt intake. Reduce your tea or coffee intake. For some who suffer from mild symptoms, this is all that they need to do. However, some might require medications in the form of antioxidants, anti-inflammatory drugs. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation may be useful in some. Some might require hormonal treatment and diuretics. Antidepressant medication may have to be prescribed in severe cases.




Know your health through your menstrual cycle


Know your health through your menstrual cycle

A woman is a beautiful creature of God who can give birth to a new being. Each month, her body gets prepared for pregnancy. One of the ovary sheds an egg. It gets fertilized with the sperm. After that it gets embedded in the uterus and a woman gets pregnant. For implantation, the lining of the uterus undergoes a series of changes. If the egg doesn’t get fertilized, the lining is shed through the vagina and you get your menses.

The length of a menstrual cycle is counted from the first day of your cycle to the first day of the next. A normal menstrual cycle comes at regular interval. However, in the initial few years when menses start, they may be irregular. As you age, a regular pattern gets established. Your regular cycles can come at as short interval as 21 days or as long as 35 days. They usually last for 2-7 days.

It’s important that you keep a track of your menstrual cycle pattern. Within a range, “normal” is what’s normal for you. Tracking your menstrual cycle can help you detect any abnormality or disease in time as “A stitch in time saves nine”.

Keep a note of your cycle length. Record the flow. Has it become lighter than usual or you have started using more pads than usual. Keep a note of any pain associated with the cycle. Whether it has been worsening? If there is any bleeding in between the cycles or after the intercourse. Pay attention to any mood changes around the time of menses.

There can be many reasons of the menstrual irregularities. If you’ve missed your periods, it could be pregnancy. If that is not the case, you might be having some hormonal problems. It could be some disorder of the thyroid or you might be having polycystic ovary syndrome. A change in eating habits or excessive physical activity or stress might be another possibility. It could be due to premature ovarian failure. In these females, the ovaries stop functioning before time and their menses stop at a much younger age

Your menstrual problems may be due some infection of the reproductive organs. There might be fibroids or polyps in the uterus which are non- cancerous growths of the uterus. In some cases, it can be due to cancerous changes in the cervix (mouth of the uterus) or in the uterus itself.

Remember, by keeping a track over your menstrual cycle, you can find out what’s normal for you and what isn’t. Talk to your health care provider when you have some concerns about your menstrual cycle.



The Glucose challenge test measures your body!!!

Did your doctor tell you that you’ve to undergo glucose challenge test?

You should be worried about this! This test measures your body’s ability to breakdown sugar.

Is it really required ?

Yes, all pregnant women should undergo this test. It is required to screen you for gestational diabetes.

What is gestational diabetes?

Gestational diabetes is when you develop high levels of blood sugar because of diabetes. Insulin is the hormone that is secreted by our body to utilize blood sugar. During pregnancy, many hormones are secreted that have a function opposite to that of insulin. It can lead to high blood sugar in some females.

What are my chances of developing gestational diabetes?

About 1-14% pregnancies are complicated by diabetes and 90% of them are gestational diabetes. Indians are at an average risk for developing diabetes.

However, few patients are at high risk of gestational diabetes eg. obese females, those with a personal history of gestational diabetes or a family history of diabetes.

When is the test done?

Earlier, the test used to be done between weeks 24 and 28 of pregnancy. Nowadays we recommend it at the first visit itself.

How is the test done?

You are asked to take sugary solution and after 2 hours, your blood sample is taken.

Do I need to do some special preparation for the test?

No, you need not do any special preparation. You can eat and drink normally before the glucose challenge test. However, you should not eat after taking the sugary solution. And since you will be asked to wait for two hours, you can bring something to read for yourself or can engage yourself in some other activity.

What is an abnormal blood sugar level?

With 75 gram of glucose, 2 hour blood sugar level of 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) or higher indicate gestational diabetes.

What is the treatment if I am diagnosed as Gestational diabetes?

It depends upon your sugar levels. You may be managed with life style and diet modification or you may need medical management.

Is there any risk to my baby with the test?

No. The test does not carry any risk to the baby.

Your Daughter & Her First Bra!

Well Well, The topic seems very confusing to most especially being posted on a Doctor’s Blog! Well there are always two sides to it…on that appears to be and the other one that Actually is! When I referred to the Bra, an inevitable stage of a Girl’s growth into womanhood it actually meant welcoming puberty!

This is just as much of an ordeal to the parents, specially the mother, as it is the girl welcoming this hormonal change to her body, which is rather more stressful mentally than it is physically.


Buying her first bra, starting your period and hormones – your daughter probably has a hundred questions about puberty. Use our helpful action checklist to guide an open, honest and blush-free conversation with your daughter.

Some time, usually between the ages of 8 and 14, girls transition from being the children you know into adolescence. They may become disoriented by the rate and magnitude of change their bodies are going through physically, hormonally and emotionally. Welcome to puberty.

The impact of puberty on body confidence and self-esteem at this time is obvious. Hardly surprising given their developing breasts, arrival of periods, appearance of body hair and body fat where it hasn’t been before – their body is becoming unrecognizable to them.

It’s also unsurprising that she may be feeling a bit embarrassed by these changes and hyper-sensitive to anyone noticing them in her. It can be tricky to navigate this time in your daughter’s life and provide all the support you’d like to.

Don’t leave it too late to start the conversation about puberty

This is a time when lots of new ‘information’ starts flying around among peer groups as they all grapple with the new things they’re experiencing.

“Early is usually best when it comes to puberty-related conversations,” advises Dr. Archana Bharti, founder of Advanced Gyne-Virtual care. “Avoiding the topic could send her a message that you don’t think she’s mature enough emotionally to discuss it, which can be at odds with her rapidly physically maturing body. The earlier you open up some honest discussions about puberty, the easier it will be for her to talk to you when she needs to.”

Be open about puberty

It can be all-too-tempting to leave a book casually on your daughter’s bed for her to ‘discover’, but this kind of gesture makes it look like you’re embarrassed. And if you’re embarrassed, she will be too.

That doesn’t mean you have to make a big deal out of it, as most Indian Mother’s have discovered. “Vinni from Mumbai recollects & Says, “I gave Aanam two books relating to sex, hormones and puberty to give her educational and emotional support without her feeling embarrassed,” she says. “She embraced this idea and I reiterated some of the key changes and how to deal with them, but on a very casual basis.”

Giving your daughter the opportunity to read about these changes herself, while being open and upfront about why you have bought her the book, gives her control over how she digests information. It means you know she is learning from a trustworthy source but also gives her a clear signal that you’re available to talk if she wants to.

Let your daughter steer the puberty conversation,


In the midst of so much change, she probably feels a bit out of control. It’s important to talk about body changes but there’s a fine line between opening up positive lines of communication and being seen as intrusive. You’ll probably be the one who has to start the conversation, but let her steer the focus of your discussion.

By being open and honest with your daughter early in her experience of puberty and helping to demystify the changes she is experiencing, you’ll give her a sense of control and help her avoid social awkwardness. You’ll also be supporting her emotional as well as physical development – building her self-esteem and laying the foundations for her to love and care for her body.

Check List

Ask a few questions of your own: let her answers guide you as to which changes she’s finding particularly difficult to cope with.

Give her the space to talk: try to use open-ended questions when you start the conversation – these are questions that require more than a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answer, for example:

  • What changes have you noticed in your body recently?
  • How much have you talked about puberty at school or with friends so far?
  • How much do you know about what happens when you start your period?

Get ready for the changes to come: organise a shopping trip to select bras, pads and tampons together. It will save her the embarrassment of asking and give her the opportunity to ask questions.

Talk about your own experiences: share with your daughter what puberty, and waiting for it, was like for you. You can dig out old photos of yourself at her age and look at the pictures together.

Talk straight: much of what your daughter hears will be ‘Chinese whispers’; other things simply mythical – and she has to try to sort the fact from fiction. You can help her by setting things out factually – be straightforward in your approach to show her that these things are normal and don’t have to be such a big deal.

Give her something to read: consider buying her a book about puberty. Look through it together or, if she wants to read it alone, encourage her to talk to you afterwards.

To protect privacy we’ve changed the names of the people whose stories we tell on these pages. But the stories they tell are absolutely genuine.



Some More Gynecological problems (2/2)

Evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding includes ultrasound, endometrial biopsy or D&C.  Typical diagnosis include: unexpected pregnancy, fibroid uterus, polyps, endometriosis, premenopausal or menopausal uterine changes, cysts and tumors.

Treatment typically includes, a trial of hormonal birth control using oral, injection or IUD delivery to reduce bleeding, cramps and pain.  Other prescription medication may be prescribed to either slow bleeding down.

In some cases, surgical treatments to address abnormal uterine bleeding may be the best option. Surgical procedures include hysteroscopy, endometrial ablation, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy, exploratory laparatomy through an abdominal incision, vaginal approach, laparoscopy or robotic assistance.  Hysterectomy is considered only when a permanent treatment is required and fertility is no longer desired.

Hysteroscopy – A procedure that takes a look inside the uterus through a scope.  The physician can see the lining of the uterus (endometrium) and the openings of the fallopian tubes.  It allows direct view of the uterine lining and the ability to take samples of tissue.  This procedure is minimally invasive and may be performed in an office or outpatient setting.


Operative Hysteroscopy – While the physician is visualizing the uterus and endometrial lining, he may remove polyps, fibroids or perform a D&C.  This procedure is typically performed in a surgi-center setting.

Endometrial Ablation – A procedure using either heat or cold energy to destroy the endometrial lining of the uterus. This procedure can be performed in the office or surgi-center setting.  Bleeding tends to be significantly less than before the procedure.  An endometrial ablation should only be considered for women who no longer wish to become pregnant and permanent treatment is desired.

Endometrial biopsy – This procedure obtains a sample of the endometrial lining and is usually performed at your physician’s office. It involves the insertion of a plastic pipelle (a small flexible tube), thru the opening of the cervix, into the uterus. Using suction, the pipelle plucks off a sample of tissue from the uterine lining and it is removed for laboratory examination.

D & C – A procedure performed to obtain samples of the endometrium, the lining of the uterus to evaluate abnormal uterine bleeding or abnormal cells that may be from the uterus that was found during routine screening for cervical cancer.  A D&C is typically performed when an endometrial biopsy is not possible or if the sample of the tissue was inadequate.  This procedure typically is performed in the office or surgi-center setting.

Laparoscopy – A surgical procedure using key-hole sized incisions and a thin telescope like instrument that allows the physician to visualize operate on the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries and surrounding tissue.  This procedure is performed in a surgi-center.

Hysterectomy – A surgical procedure performed by laparoscopy, robotic assistance, vaginally or by an open incision that removes the uterus with or without ovarian removal.  This procedure typically is performed in a hospital setting and requires a period of observation.

Fibroid Tumors 

Uterine fibroids are nodules of smooth muscle cells and fibrous connective tissue that develop within the wall of the uterus (womb). Medically they are called uterine leiomyomata. Fibroids may grow as a single nodule or in clusters and may range in size from 1 mm to more than 20 cm (8 inches) in diameter. They may grow within the wall of the uterus or they may project into the interior cavity or toward the outer surface of the uterus. In rare cases, they may grow on stalks or peduncles projecting from the surface of the uterus.

Most fibroids occur in women of reproductive age, and they are seldom seen in young women who have not begun to menstruate and they usually stabilize or shrink during menopause.

Are fibroid tumors common?

Fibroids are the most frequently diagnosed tumor of the female pelvis. It is important to know that these are benign tumors. They are not associated with cancer, they virtually never develop into cancer, and they do not increase a woman’s risk for uterine cancer.

Uterine fibroids may not require any intervention or, at most, limited treatment. For a woman with uterine fibroids that are not symptomatic the best therapy may be watchful waiting. Some women never exhibit any symptoms nor have any problems associated with fibroids, in which case no treatment is necessary. For women who experience occasional pelvic pain or discomfort, over-the counter anti-inflammatory or pain-reducing drug often will be effective. More bothersome cases may require stronger drugs available by prescription.


The name endometriosis comes from the word “endometrium,” the tissue that lines the inside of the uterus. If a woman is not pregnant this tissue builds up and is shed each month,  as menstrual flow at the end of each cycle. In endometriosis, tissue that looks and acts like endometrial tissue is found outside the uterus, usually inside the abdominal cavity.


The problem is that this misplaced endometrial tissue acts like it would if it were inside the uterus. At the end of every cycle, when hormones cause the uterus to shed its endometrial lining, endometrial tissue growing outside the uterus will break apart and bleed. However, unlike menstrual fluid from the uterus, blood from the misplaced tissue has no place to go. Tissues surrounding the area of endometriosis may become inflamed or swollen. The inflammation may produce scar tissue around the area of endometriosis. This abnormal tissue may develop into what are called “lesions,” “implants,” “patches,” “nodules,” or “growths”.


The most common symptom is pain, especially excessive menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea) which may be felt in the abdomen or lower back or pain during or after sexual activity (dyspareunia). Infertility occurs in about 30-40% of women with endometriosis. Endometrial patches may also be tender to touch or pressure and intestinal pain may also result from endometrial patches on the walls of the colon or intestine.

The amount of pain is not always related to the severity of the disease-some women with severe endometriosis have no pain; while others with just a few small growths have incapacitating pain.

Will it cause infertility? 

Severe endometriosis with extensive scarring and organ damage may affect fertility. It is considered one of the three major causes of female infertility. However, unsuspected or mild endometriosis is a common finding among infertile women and how this type of endometriosis affects fertility is still not clear. However, compared to the general population, pregnancy rates for those who suffer endometriosis remain lower. Fortunately, most patients with endometriosis do not experience fertility problems.


The cause of endometriosis is still unknown. One theory is that during menstruation some of the menstrual tissue backs up through the fallopian tubes into the abdomen, where it implants and grows. Another theory suggests that endometriosis may be a genetic process or that certain families may have predisposing factors to endometriosis. In the latter view, endometriosis is seen as the tissue development process gone awry.


Diagnosis of endometriosis begins with a gynecologist evaluating the patient’s medical history. A complete physical exam, including a pelvic examination, is also necessary. However, diagnosis of endometriosis is only complete when proven by a laparoscopy. The surgeon can then check the condition of the abdominal organs and see the endometrial implants.

The laparoscopy will show the locations, extent, and size of the growths and will help the patient and her doctor make better-informed decisions about treatment.


While the treatment for endometriosis has varied over the years, doctors now agree that if the symptoms are mild, no further treatment other than medication for pain may be needed. Treatment plans are developed based on symptoms and desires for pregnancy. For those younger patients with mild endometriosis who wish to become pregnant, the best course of action is to have a trial period of unprotected intercourse for 6 months to 1 year. If pregnancy does not occur within that time, then further treatment may be needed.

For patients not seeking a pregnancy,  a trial of hormone suppression treatment will be recommended. Surgical treatment to remove the endometrial implants without risking damage to healthy surrounding tissue may also be considered.

Abnormal Pap smear 

Initial Pap smear results reported as abnormal indicate cell changes of the cervix. Frequently after an abnormal Pap smear, your health care provider may ask you to return to the office for a repeat Pap smear or a colposcopy to determine the significance of these cell changes. A colposcopy requires use of an instrument called a colposcope, which has a series of lenses that magnify the tissues of the cervix. It is from this instrument that the procedure gets its name.


Colposcopy feels similar to a Pap smear collection. However, instead of taking a sample of cervical cells, your health care provider places the colposcope at the vaginal opening to more closely examine your cervical tissue in order to detect any abnormalities. In areas where cervical tissue may appear suspicious, your health care provider will use a separate instrument to obtain a small tissue sample. You may feel a slight pinch or cramp and there might be some minor bleeding from the biopsy site, or temporary pelvic pain. The tissue will then be sent to a lab for analysis.

When a biopsy is performed, your physician or clinician will contact you to discuss results and next steps. Depending upon the biopsy results, various treatments can be performed in your physician or clinician’s office. These treatments may include observation, cryosurgery or “freezing” of the cervix, laser removal or “burning,” and LEEP procedures.

LEEP, loop electro-surgical excision procedure, uses a tiny electrical wire that acts like a very sharp scalpel to remove the abnormal areas. Your cervix will be numbed with a medicine before the procedure is started. After you are treated, you may have some cramping or other side effects. Your health care provider can explain more about these effects to you.

For more advanced abnormalities revealed by colposcopy and biopsy, patients may be referred to a cancer specialist in gynecology.

Some Gynecological Problems…(1/2)

Did you know that most abnormal menstrual bleeding problems are caused by an imbalance in hormones? Or those women who have abnormal Pap smears have a very small chance of developing cervical cancer from those abnormal cells?

At Advanced Gyne Virtual Care, our physicians, clinicians have a great deal of experience handling women’s health procedures and gynecologic concerns with expert, compassionate care.


Of course, the best place to get answers or information about your own health is always your doctor or nurse practitioner, but here are a few of the most common topics and concerns that women have regarding their gynecologic health.

  • Abnormal Uterine Bleeding, diagnosis and treatment
  • Endometriosis
  • Abnormal Pap smear and follow up

Abnormal uterine bleeding, diagnosis and treatment 

This term is a catchall for problems associated with vaginal bleeding. This may be related to the menstrual cycle, but at times abnormal bleeding may occur before the onset of menses, during pregnancy and after menopause.

Overwhelmingly, bleeding problems are caused by an imbalance in the hormones that control the menstrual cycle and are referred to as “dysfunctional uterine bleeding.” When vaginal bleeding is not related to the menstrual cycle, it is of increased concern. This is especially true when it occurs in childhood before menstruation has begun, during pregnancy, and at midlife, after a woman has entered menopause.

When to call your Doctor: 


  • Periods  less than 21 days apart or more than 45 days apart
  • Severe abdominal or pelvic pain occurs during menstruation or sexual intercourse
  • Menstrual bleeding is excessive (more than one pad or tampon per hour for several hours)
  • Menstrual periods lasting longer than 7 days
  • Bleeding or spotting between periods
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding may be more likely associated with the following:

In a young, pre-pubertal girl

  • Injury
  • Sexual abuse
  • A blood clotting problem
  • Early puberty
  • Severe vaginal irritation (bubble bath, etc.)

In a woman of reproductive age

  • Tubal or ectopic pregnancy
  • Molar pregnancy
  • Hormone imbalance
  • Placenta previa – pregnancy where the placenta lies low near or over the cervix
  • Uterine fibroids
  • Certain kinds of cysts and tumors (rarely cancerous)
  • Endometriosis
  • Birth control pills
  • IUD (intrauterine device)

In post-menopausal women

  • Effects of hormone replacement therapy
  • Cancer
  • Certain kinds of cysts and tumors (not cancerous)
  • Atrophic vaginitis (irritation and drying)
  • Weakened pelvic floor muscles causing prolapsed Uterus

Diagnosis and Treatment

  • Hysteroscopy
  • Operative Hysteroscopy
  • Endometrial ablation
  • Endometrial Biopsy
  • D&C
  • Laparoscopy
  • Hysterectomy
  • Fibroid tumors

We will an insight with more such problems in the second part of the blog. It is important that you are aware of such problems to avoid such situations or find a quick cure.